This section highlights articles that have reviewed the published literature and identified the weaknesses and strengths of various studies in the area of open adoption.
1. Demick, J., and Wapner, S. "Open and Closed Adoption: A Developmental Conceptualization." Family Process v 27, n 2 (1988): 229-49.
The authors review the body of research on closed adoptions and conclude that the research is limited and has led to the perpetuation of the view that all individuals involved in the process of adoption are impacted negatively. The authors also discuss their ongoing research on open and closed adoptions.
2. Berry, M. "The Effects of Open Adoption on Biological and Adoptive Parents and the Children: The Arguments and the Evidence." Child Welfare v 70, n 6 (November-December 1991): 637-51.
The author reviews current empirical research on open adoption including: Belbas, 1986; McRoy, et al. 1988; Meezan and Shireman, 1985; Partridge, et. al. 1986; Barth and Berry, 1988; Nelson, 1985; and Feigelman and Silverman, 1986.
In sum, the author concludes the studies support the argument that open adoption holds the most benefit for biological parents, particularly the mothers, and holds the greatest risk for children.
3. Gross, H. E. "Open Adoption: A Research-Based Literature Review and New Data." Child Welfare v 77, n 3 (1993): 269-84.
The author reviews six empirical studies of open adoption (Kraft et al, 1985; Berry, 1991; Etter and Giovannini, 1991; Siegel, 1990; Iwanke, 1987; McRoy et al, 1988; and Belbas, 1987) and concludes that openness in infant adoptions is viewed more favorably by both sets of parents than unfavorably, whatever the actual level of contact. There is some evidence from the studies that more, instead of less, openness prevents worrying about the security of the adoption. One limitation of the studies is the relatively small number (N=121) of adoptions they actually represent.
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