Barth, Richard P., and Needell, B. "Outcomes for Drug-Exposed Children Four Years Post-Adoption." Children and Youth Services Review v 18, n 1-2 (1996): 37-56.
Approximately four years after adoption, the researchers conducted a follow up study on three groups of children: 220 prenatally drug-exposed, 201 nondrug-exposed, and 587 drug exposure unknown. These same groups of children were first studied at the age of two; they are now, on average, 76 months (drug-exposed) and 59 months (nondrug-exposed).
Key findings were that in areas such as good health and positive school performance (grades, enjoyment of school, disobedience, or trouble getting along with teachers) the drug exposed and the nondrug-exposed groups were equal. On the Behavior Problem Inventory only the hyperactivity subscale showed higher scores for the drug-exposed children under the age of six.
The level of parental satisfaction was high for the parents of both groups. Over 98 percent indicated that they probably or definitely would adopt the same child if they had to do it over again. However, there was a slight decrease for both drug-exposed and nonexposed groups, from the satisfaction level expressed at the two-year follow-up. The authors noted that parents of drug-exposed children scored higher on a scale measuring the degree of closeness of parents and children than the parents of nonexposed children.
Barth, R. P. "Revisiting the Issues: Adoption of Drug-Exposed Children." The Future of Children v 3, n 1 (Spring 1993): 167-75.
Barth, R. P. "Adoption of Drug-Exposed Children." Children and Youth Services Review v 13 (1991): 323-42.
Brodzinsky, David M. "Long-Term Outcomes in Adoption." The Future of Children v 3, n 1 (Spring 1993): 153-66.
The author reviews the literature that examines long term outcomes for adopted individuals and notes the lack of research on the role of prenatal risk factors in relation to long-term adoption outcomes.
Brodzinsky, D. M.; Hitt, J. C.; and Smith, D. W. "Impact of Parental Separation and Divorce on Adopted and Nonadopted Children." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry v 63, n 3 (1993): 451-61.
Brodzinsky, D. M., and Brodzinsky, A. B. "The Impact of Family Structure on the Adjustment of Adopted Children." Child Welfare v 71, n 1 (January-February 1992): 69-76.
Brodzinsky, D. M.; Radice, C.; Huffman, L.; and Merkler, K. "Prevalence of Clinically Significant Symptomatology in a Nonclinical Sample of Adopted and Nonadopted Children." Journal of Clinical Child Psychology v 16, n 4 (1987): 350-56.
Brodzinsky, D. M.; Schechter, D. E.; and Brodzinsky, A. B. "Children's Knowledge of Adoption: Developmental Changes and Implications for Adjustment." In Thinking About the Family: Views of Parents and Children, edited by R. Ashmore and D. Brodzinsky, 205-232. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1986.
Brodzinsky, D. M., and Steiger, C. "Prevalence of Adoptees Among Special Education Populations." Journal of Learning Disabilities v 24 (1991): 484-89.
Smith, D. W., and Brodzinsky, D. M. "Stress and Coping in Adopted Children: A Developmental Study." Journal of Clinical Child Psychology v 23, n 1 (1994): 91-99.
Cadoret, Remi. J.; Yates, W. R.; et al. "An Adoption Study of Drug Abuse/Dependency in Females." Comprehensive Psychiatry v 37, n 2 (March-April 1996): 88-94.
In a study of 102 women who had been adopted at birth, log-linear analyzes found drug abuse/dependency to have a genetic etiology, and that, in addition, either divorce or psychiatric disturbance in the adoptive family environment also impacts directly upon the behavior that leads to drug abuse/dependency. These findings are consistent with findings from a male sample collected from the same agencies at the same time.
Cadoret, R. J.; Troughton, E.; O'Gorman, T. W.; and Heywood, E. "An Adoption Study of Genetic and Environmental Factors in Drug Abuse." Archives of General Psychiatry v 43 (1986): 1131-36.
Cutrona, C. E.; Cadoret, R. J.; Suhr, J. A.; et al. "Interpersonal Variables in the Prediction of Alcoholism Among Adoptees: Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions." Comprehensive Psychiatry v 35, n 3 (May-June 1994): 171-79.
Cadoret, R.; Troughton, E.; and Woodworth, G. "Evidence of Heterogeneity of Genetic Effect in Iowa Adoption Studies." In Types of Alcoholics: Evidence from Clinical, Experimental, and Genetic Research, edited by Thomas F. Babor, Victor Hesselbrock, Roger E. Meyer, and William Shoemaker, 59-71. New York, NY: The New York Academy of Sciences, 1994.
Cadoret, R. J.; Yates, W. R.; Troughton, E.; Woodworth, G.; and Stewart, M. A. "Adoption Study Demonstrating Two Genetic Pathways to Drug Abuse." Archives of General Psychiatry v 52, n 1 (January 1995): 42-52.
Cadoret, R. J.; Winokur, G.; Langbehn, D.; et al. "Depression Spectrum Disease, I: The Role of Gene- Environment Interaction." The American Journal of Psychiatry v 153, n 7 (July 1996): 892-99.
Yates, W. R.; Cadoret, R. J.; Troughton, E.; and Stewart, M. A. "An Adoption Study of DSM-IIIR Alcohol and Drug Dependence Severity." Drug and Alcohol Dependence v 41, n 1 (May 1996): 9-15.
Yates, W. R.; Cadoret, R. J.; Troughton, E. P.; Stewart, M. A.; and Giunta, T. S. "Fetal Alcohol Exposure as a Risk Factor for Adoptee Nicotine, Alcohol and Drug Dependence." Submitted for publication.
Chasnoff, Ira. J.; Griffith, D. R.; et al. "Cocaine/Polydrug Use in Pregnancy: Two Year Follow up." Pediatrics v 89, n 2 (February 1992): 284-9.
Three groups of children exposed prenatally to cocaine and other drugs taken by the mother during pregnancy were evaluated to determine the factors that best predicted growth, intelligence, and behavior, and were compared with a non-exposed group. The caretaking arrangements of the children range from 1) continuing to live with their biological mothers who continued to use drugs, 2 ) living with parents who discontinued drug use one year after the birth, and 3) kinship or foster care arrangements. Children who were not in multiple placements or not living with drug- affected mothers displayed less problems.
Among the conclusions arrived at by the researchers was that Cocaine exposure predicted poor verbal reasoning while Marijuana exposure predicted poor abstract/visual reasoning. Examiner rating predicted intellectual outcome and caregiver ratings. Caregivers rated exposed children as more aggressive than nonexposed.
The authors conclude that not all substance-exposed children suffer the same poor prognosis. And that generalizations about the fate of drug-exposed children cannot be made.
Griffith, D. R.; Azuma, S. D.; and Chasnoff, I. J. "Three-year Outcome of Children Exposed Prenatally to Drugs." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry v 33, n 1 (January 1994): 20-7.
Azuma, S. D., and Chasnoff, I. J. "Outcome of Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine and Other Drugs: A Path Analysis of Three-year Data." Pediatrics v 92, n 3 (September 1993): 396-402.
Schneider, J. W., and Chasnoff, I. J. "Motor Assessment of Cocaine/Polydrug Exposed Infants at Age 4 Months." Neurotoxicology and Teratology v 14, n 2 (March-April 1992): 97-101.
Schneider, J.; Griffith, D.; and Chasnoff, I. "Infants Exposed to Cocaine in Utero: Implications for Developmental Assessment and Intervention." Infants and Young Children v 2, n 1 (1989): 25-36.
Coles, Claire D.; Platzman, K. A.; et al. "A Comparison of Children Affected by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit, Hyperactivity Disorder." Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research v 21, n 1 (1997): 150-161.
To examine whether or not a relationship existed between ADHD and prenatal alcohol exposure, the researchers assessed 149 children on a battery of neurological tests. One hundred and twenty-two of the children had experienced prenatal alcohol exposure. While both groups of children did more poorly than a matched comparison group, the results suggest that children with the diagnosis of FAS do not have the same neurocognitive and behavioral characteristics as children with a primary diagnosis of ADHD.
Coles, C. D. "Early Neurobehavioral Assessment of Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol." In Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: From Mechanisms to Prevention, edited by E. Abel. CRC Press, Inc., 1996.
Coles, C. D. "Critical Periods for Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies." Alcohol Health & Research World v 18 (1994): 22-29.
Coles, C. D. "Impact of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Newborn and the Child." Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology v 36, n 2 (1993): 255-66.
Coles, C. D., and Platzman, K. A. "Fetal Alcohol Effects in Preschool Children: Research, Prevention, and Intervention." In Drug Exposed Children, Ages 2-5: Identifying their Needs and Planning for Early Intervention. OSAP Technical Manual. Rockville, MD: Office of Substance Abuse Prevention, 1992.
Coles, C. D., and Smith, I. E. (Editors). "Special Issue on Maternal Drug Use: Issues and Implications for Mother and Child." International Journal of the Addictions v 28, n 13 (1993).
Cole, C. D.; et al. Today's Challenge: Teaching Strategies for Working with Young Children Pre-Natally Exposed to Drugs/Alcohol. Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Unified School District, 1991.
Coles, C. D.; Brown, R. T.; et al. "Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure at School Age: I. Physical and Cognitive Development." Neurotoxicology and Teratology v 13, n 4 (1991): 357-67.
Coles, C. D.; Platzman, K. A.; et al. "Effects of Cocaine and Alcohol Use in Pregnancy on Neonatal Growth and Neurobehavioral Status." Neurotoxicology and Teratology v 14 (1992): 23-33.
Coles, C. D.; Smith, I.E.; et al. "Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Infant Behavior: Immediate Effects and Implications for Later Development." Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse v 6, n 4 (1987): 87- 104.
Coles, C. D.; Smith, I.E.; et al. "Persistence Over the First Month of Neurobehavioral Deficits in Infants Exposed to Alcohol Prenatally." Infant Behavior and Development v 10 (1987): 23-37.
Dozier, Mary; Stovall, K. C.; and Albus, K. "A Transactional Intervention for Foster Infants' Caregivers." In Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology: Developmental Approaches to Prevention and Intervention, edited by D. Cicchetti and S. L. Toth, Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. (In Press).
Ten infant and foster caregiver pairs were studied to examine ways in which foster infants form attachments to caregivers. Eight of the ten infants demonstrated the ability to attach very quickly. Age at time of placement appeared to be related to the capacity to attach. The sensitivity of foster parents was also found to be important in facilitating attachment relationships.
Dozier, M., and Lee, S. W. "Discrepancies Between Self- and Other-Report of Psychiatric Symptomatology: Effects of Dismissing Attachment Strategies." Development and Psychopathology v 7 (1995): 217-26.
Dozier, M.; Cue, K.; and Barnett, L. "Clinicians as Caregivers: The Role of Attachment Organization in Treatment." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology v 62 (1994): 793-800.
Dozier, M., and Kobak, R. R. "Psychophysiology in Adolescent Attachment Interviews: Converging Evidence for Deactivating Strategies." Child Development v 62 (1991): 1091-99.
Franck, Ellen J. "Prenatally Drug-Exposed Children in Out-of-Home Care: Are We Looking at the Whole Picture?" Child Welfare v 75, n 1 (January-February 1996): 19-34.
This article examines the conflicting views in the literature on the effects of prenatal exposure to drugs and reports on an early intervention project at Saint Christopher-Ottlie, a large agency serving children and families in New York City. All children under age three in this program were given a developmental screening by a certified social worker every six months to determine if a referral for a full developmental screening was necessary.
The rate of developmental delay was found to be virtually the same for children with and without prenatal exposure to drugs. After 18 months, 161 children had been screened; 100 were referred for further evaluations. Drug- exposed children numbered 116; of these 48 were determined to be developmentally delayed. Nondrug-exposed children numbered 45; of these, 19 were found to be developmentally delayed.
Hill, Robert B. "Supporting African American Families: Dispelling Myths Building on Strengths." Children's Voice v 6, n 3 (Spring 1997): 4-7.
The author reviews research that points to strengths in African American families such as the flexibility in family roles, the high number of intact single parent families, strong religious orientation, and extensive kinship networks that provide informal adoption and foster care arrangements. The large number of African American children in foster care has challenged organizations to provide innovative adoption and family preservation services.
Hill, R. B. "Breaking the Cycle of Disadvantage: Toward A Comprehensive National Policy for Social Intervention." In African-American Youth, edited by Ronald L. Taylor, pp. 333-344. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1994.
Hill, R. B. Informal Adoption Among Black Families. Washington, D.C.: National Urban League Research Department, 1977.
Kandall, Stephen R.; Gaines, J.; et al. "Relationship of Maternal Substance Abuse to Subsequent Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Offspring." Journal of Pediatrics v 123, n 1 (1993): 120-26.
The author investigated the relationship between Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and exposure to drugs during prenatal development. A key finding was that exposure to methadone alone was the highest drug-specific exposure risk associated with SIDS. Overall, drug-associated SIDS deaths were similar to SIDS deaths in the non- exposed population with respect to age at death and seasonal occurrence.
Kandall, S. R. "Treatment Options for Drug-Exposed Infants." In Medications Development for the Treatment of Pregnant Addicts and Their Infants, edited by C. N. Chiang, and L. P. Finnegan, pp. 78-99. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Health Publication No. 95-3891, 1995.
Kandall, S. R., and Gaines, J. "Maternal Substance Use and Subsequent Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in Offspring." Neurotoxicology and Teratology v 13 (1991): 235-40.
Doberczak, T. M.; Kandall, S. R.; et al. "Relationships Between Maternal Methadone Dosage, Maternal- Neonatal Methadone Levels and Neonatal Withdrawal." Obstetrics and Gynecology v 81 (1993): 936- 40.
Doberczak, T. M.; Shanzer, S.; et al. "Neonatal Neurologic and Electroencephalographic Effects of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure." Journal of Pediatrics v 113 (1988): 354-58.
Doberczak, T. M.; Kandall, S. R.; et al. "Peripheral Nerve Conduction Studies in Passively-Addicted Neonates." Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation v 67 (1986): 4-6.
Olson, Heather Carmichael. "The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Child Development." Infants and Young Children: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Special Care Pediatrics v 6, n 3 (1994): 10-25.
The author discusses the range of characteristics exhibited by infants affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, and compares Fetal Alcohol Syndrome with other childhood disorders. Obtaining a correct diagnosis is essential to developing medical interventions and to acquiring support services such as an adoption subsidy, Social Security Income and special education services.
Olson, H. C.; Streissguth, A. P.; et al. "Association of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure with Behavioral and Learning Problems in Early Adolescence." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry v 36, n 9 (1997): 1187.
Olson, H. C.; Burgess, D. M.; and Streissguth, A. P. "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: A Lifespan View and Early Intervention." Zero to Three v 13, n 1 (1992): 22-29.
Olson, H. C., and Burgess, D. M. "Early Intervention with Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Other Drugs." In The Effectiveness of Early Intervention, edited by M. J. Guralnick, 109-146. Baltimore: MD: Brookes, 1997.
Olson, H. C.; Sampson, P. D.; et al. "Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and School Performance in Late Childhood: A Longitudinal Prospective Study." Development and Psychopathology v 4 (1992): 341- 59.
Zuckerman, Barry. "Developmental Considerations for Drug- and AIDS-Affected Infants." In Families Living with Drugs and HIV: Intervention and Treatment Strategies, edited by R. P. Barth, J. Pietrzak, and M. Ramler, pp. 37-58. London: The Guilford Press, 1993.
The author combines the findings from case histories, his own research, and other empirical research to illustrate the complexities of distinguishing the impact of the caretaking environment from the prenatal assault on childhood developmental and behavioral outcomes.
Zuckerman, B. "Drug Effects: A Search for Outcomes." NIDA Research Monograph v 164 (1996): 277-87.
Zuckerman B., and Frank, D. A. "Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: Nine Years Later." The Journal of Pediatricsv 124 (1994): 731-3.
Zuckerman, B. "Drug-Exposed Infants: Understanding the Medical Risk." The Future of Children v 1, n 1 (Spring 1991): 26-7.
Zuckerman, B., and Bresnahan, K. "Development and Behavioral Consequence of Prenatal Drug and Alcohol Exposure." The Pediatrics Clinics of North America v 38, n 6 (December 1991): 1387.
Zuckerman, B.; Frank, D. A.; et al. "Effects of Maternal Marijuana and Cocaine Use on Fetal Growth." The New England Journal of Medicine v 320, n 12 (March 23, 1989): 762-68.
Zuckerman, B.; et al. "Effects of Maternal Marijuana and Cocaine Use on Fetal Growth." New England Journal of Medicine v 320, n 12 (1989): 762-68.
Bauchner, H., and Zuckerman, B. "Cocaine, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and Home Monitoring." Journal of Pediatrics v 117 (1990): 904-6.
Bresnahan, K.; Brooks, C.; and Zuckerman, B. "Prenatal Cocaine Use: Impact on Infants and Mothers." Pediatric Nursing v 17 (1991): 123-29.
Needleman, R.; Zuckerman, B.; et al. " Cerebrospinal Fluid Monoamine Precursors and Metabolites in Human Neonates Following in Utero Cocaine Exposure: A Preliminary Study." Pediatrics v 92, n 1 (July 1993): 55-60.